In a nationwide memorial tackle at Oslo Cathedral simply two days after the assaults, Stoltenberg known as for “extra democracy, extra openness, and extra humanity.”
Talking with CNN’s “Amanpour” present in an interview to mark the anniversary, Stoltenberg — now NATO secretary-general — repeated that message and applauded the best way Norwegians had responded. However, he warned, the “hatred continues to be on the market.”
The writer of one of many studies, Dr. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, advised CNN it appeared extra restricted than media protection would counsel. “There was in fact plenty of concern after the assaults that they’d generate copycat assaults,” he stated. However “considerably surprisingly,” he stated, there have not been many clear-cut circumstances of direct inspiration from Breivik.
However though Tarrant claimed to have been impressed by Breivik, investigators discovered that he had began his planning a while earlier than he learn Breivik’s manifesto. “So even there, you possibly can query how a lot of an influence Breivik had,” Ravndal stated. Tarrant’s personal manifesto may be very completely different from Breivik’s, together with in its politics, he added.
The Counter Extremism Mission (CEP), an NGO that combats extremist teams, stated in an announcement Thursday that survivors of Breivik’s assaults had voiced concern relating to his “standing as an inspirational determine amongst far-right extremists.”
“[This status] underlines the necessity for larger motion to focus on the dissemination of recognized extremist propaganda with clear hyperlinks to violence on on-line platforms,” stated David Ibsen, CEP government director. “The continued presence of far-right views on-line, together with larger publicity to extremist content material over the course of the Covid-19 pandemic, is of explicit concern.”
In keeping with Ravndal, analysis signifies that inside Norway the far proper has not gained a lot attraction general because the assaults and has been unable to end up supporters in any numbers on the streets.
“In fact in Norway, as in all places else, on-line exercise has grown over these 10 years,” he stated. “However whether or not that displays a considerable improve of far-right exercise or just mirrors the expansion of social media on the web, that is very tough to say.”
Taking pictures spree
Breivik, in the meantime, had set off by automobile on the 25-mile journey to Utoya Island, the place a Labour Celebration summer season youth camp was going down. Posing as a police officer who was checking on safety following the Oslo assault, he caught a ferry to the island and carried out a capturing spree through which 69 individuals died — most of them youngsters. Many others had been critically wounded.
In keeping with Professor Matthew Feldman, director of the UK-based Centre for Evaluation of the Radical Proper (CARR), Breivik’s doc can nonetheless “simply” be discovered within the darker reaches of the web regardless of efforts to take away it.
That manifesto was “paradigmatic,” Feldman stated, “not simply because it confirmed what one particular person can do when it comes to the horrific lack of life” but additionally in its concentrating on of Muslims and what Breivik known as “cultural Marxism.”
Regardless of this backdrop, Breivik’s actions and manifesto have gained restricted traction, in response to Ravndal.
His evaluation for C-REX signifies that “at first the far-right throughout the board rejected him,” stated Ravndal. A web based assist community that was established for Breivik later collapsed. It was solely with the emergence of on-line boards like 4chan and 8chan that Breivik as soon as once more began to get optimistic mentions, Ravndal stated.
“The principle discovering, all in all, each in relation to ways but additionally for political, ideological assist, is that it has been surprisingly little,” he stated. “It has been doable to search out assist, however happily lower than one might need fearful about initially contemplating the excessive demise toll and all the eye these assaults obtained globally.”
Right now, the controversy has shifted in elements of Norwegian society to broader ideological questions, Ravndal stated.
Some — significantly within the youth wing of the Labour Celebration — really feel that there has not been a reckoning with the nation’s far-right motion, the largest participant through which is the populist, right-wing Progress Celebration, he stated.
“We should all stand collectively towards violent extremism — no matter whether or not it comes from the ‘far proper’, ‘far left’ or excessive interpretations of faith,” the assertion stated. “Solely the extremists will win if we exclude one another from the grief after July 22 and weaken the unity across the battle for democracy, freedom of expression and equality.”
Labour has promised that if it wins energy in elections this September, it’ll arrange a brand new fee to take a look at radicalization.
There may be additionally debate about whether or not the assault needs to be interpreted as an assault on Norwegian society as a complete, or as an assault on the Labour Celebration particularly, Ravndal stated. “Right now, some throughout the Labour Celebration maybe really feel that that a part of the story has been uncared for a bit.”
Feldman considers that Norway’s response was formed by the sense that the perpetrator was “one in all their very own,” as had been the victims, with no sense of “otherness” to power a extra multicultural response.
“Norway primarily requested itself this query, and it is a very legitimate one … ‘How did Norwegian society produce such a monster?'” he stated. “It is a very inward-looking query.”
In contrast, he stated, New Zealand took a way more international method because it checked out what led as much as the Christchurch assaults. This was partly as a result of Tarrant, an Australian, had focused worshipers at mosques, a lot of whom had been foreign-born.
He hopes to win additional commitments to counter extremist content material on-line at an occasion he’s concerned with in Bergen, Norway, subsequent month.
Breivik’s ideology ‘continues to be on the market’
Talking to CNN earlier this month, Stoltenberg spoke of the shock he felt as he realized the size of the horrors perpetrated by Breivik — and the non-public unhappiness it introduced, since he knew most of the victims.
He additionally stood by the message he delivered to the nation because it was nonetheless reeling from the July 22 assaults.
“I nonetheless consider that our reply was the appropriate one,” Stoltenberg advised CNN. “[Breivik] needed to assault our free, open democratic societies. So the most effective response is extra openness, extra democracy, as a result of then we show that he’s not profitable, we’re profitable.
“He demonstrated hatred. One of the best response to hatred is love. So … I actually welcomed the robust message from the individuals of Norway, as (we) have seen additionally in lots of different international locations which have been attacked, that we get up for our values.”
That however, Stoltenberg doesn’t consider that Breivik has been solely defeated.
“He’s convicted, he’s in jail. However his ideology, that’s nonetheless on the market. And due to this fact we have to proceed — I believe we by no means might be within the place the place we will say that we now have gained the combat, we will shut the chapter combating towards extremism.”
Since 2011, Norway has applied measures to guard — so far as doable — towards such assaults sooner or later, Stoltenberg stated. And, he added, Brevik — whose 21-year sentence may very well be prolonged sooner or later if he nonetheless poses a risk — has misplaced in a single key respect.
“We’ve to grasp that the aim of this assault was to vary Norway basically. And … sure, in fact, this might be a part of Norway’s historical past,” he stated. “It will likely be a part of who we’re so long as we exist. However basically, it has not modified who we’re.”
CNN’s Frederik Pleitgen contributed to this report.